Scanning electron micrograph of the surface of a kidney stone showing tetragonal crystals of Weddellite ( calcium oxalate dihydrate ) emerging from the amorphous cardinal part of the stone ( the horizontal distance of the picture represents 0.5 millimeter of the calculate original )
Reading: Calcium oxalate – Wikipedia
Calcium oxalate ( in antediluvian terminology, oxalate of lime ) is a calcium salt of oxalate with the chemical recipe CaC2O4· ( H2O ) adam, where adam varies from 0 to 3. All forms are colorless or white. The monohydrate occurs naturally as the mineral whewellite, forming envelope-shaped crystals, known in plants as raphides. The rare dihydrate ( mineral : weddellite ) and trihydrate ( mineral : caoxite ) are besides recognized. calcium oxalates are a constituent in 76 % of human kidney stones. [ 3 ] Calcium oxalate is besides found in beerstone, a plate that forms on containers used in breweries .
occurrence [edit ]
many plants accumulate calcium oxalate as it has been reported in more than 1000 unlike genus of plants. [ 4 ] The calcium oxalate collection is linked to the detoxification of calcium ( Ca2+ ) in the plant. [ 5 ] The poisonous plant dumb cane ( Dieffenbachia ) contains the means and on consumption can prevent manner of speaking and be suffocating. It is besides found in oxalis, rhubarb ( in large quantities in the leaves ), cinnamon, turmeric and in species of Oxalis, Araceae, Arum italicum, taro, kiwifruit, tea leaves, agaves, Virginia crawler ( Parthenocissus quinquefolia ), and Alocasia and in spinach in varying amounts. Plants of the genus Philodendron check adequate calcium oxalate that pulmonary tuberculosis of parts of the plant can result in uncomfortable symptoms. insoluble calcium oxalate crystals are found in plant stems, roots, and leaves and produced in idioblasts. vanilla plants exude calcium oxalates upon crop of the orchid seed pods and may cause reach contact dermatitis. calcium oxalate, as ‘ beerstone ’, is a brown precipitate that tends to accumulate within vats, barrels, and other containers used in the brew of beer. If not removed in a scavenge summons, beerstone will leave an unsanitary coat that can harbour microorganisms. [ 6 ] Beerstone is composed of calcium and magnesium salts and versatile organic compounds left over from the brew process ; it promotes the growth of undesirable microorganisms that can adversely affect or even ruin the relish of a batch of beer. calcium oxalate crystals in the urine are the most common part of human kidney stones, and calcium oxalate crystal formation is besides one of the toxic effects of ethylene diol poisoning .
Chemical properties [edit ]
calcium oxalate is a combination of calcium ions and the conjugate base of oxalic acid, the oxalate anion. Its aqueous solutions are slenderly basic because of the basicity of the oxalate ion. The basicity of calcium oxalate is weaker than that of sodium oxalate, due to its lower solubility in body of water. Solid calcium oxalate hydrate has been characterized by x-ray crystallography. It is a coordination polymer. featuring planar oxalate anions linked to calcium, which besides has water ligands. [ 1 ]
medical meaning [edit ]
calcium oxalate can produce sores and numbing on consumption and may even be fatal .
Morphology and diagnosis [edit ]
The monohydrate and dihydrate can be distinguished by the shape of the respective crystals .
- Calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals are octahedral. A large portion of the crystals in a urine sediment will have this type of morphology, as they can grow at any pH and naturally occur in normal urine.
- Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals vary in shape, and can be shaped like dumbbells, spindles, ovals, or picket fences, the last of which is most commonly seen due to ethylene glycol poisoning.
- Urine microscopy showing calcium oxalate crystals in the urine. The octahedral crystal morphology is clearly visible.
- Urine microscopy showing a calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal ( dumbbell shaped ) and a calcium oxalate dihydrate crystal ( envelope shaped ) along with respective erythrocytes .
- Urine microscopy showing several calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals ( dumbbell shaped, some of them clumped ) and a calcium oxalate dihydrate crystal ( envelope shaped ) along with several erythrocytes .
- urinary sediment showing several calcium oxalate crystals. 40X
Kidney stones [edit ]
calcium oxalate monohydrate stones can be spiculated, resembling the head of a dawn star about 76 % of kidney stones are partially or entirely of the calcium oxalate type. [ 3 ] They form when urine is persistently saturated with calcium and oxalate. between 1 % and 15 % of people globally are affected by kidney stones at some point. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] In 2015, they caused about 16,000 deaths cosmopolitan. [ 10 ] Some of the oxalate in urine is produced by the body. Calcium and oxalate in the diet bet a character but are not the merely factors that affect the formation of calcium oxalate stones. dietary oxalate is an organic ion found in many vegetables, fruits, and nuts. calcium from bone may besides play a character in kidney stone formation .
Industrial applications [edit ]
calcium oxalate is used in the manufacture of ceramic glazes. [ 11 ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
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