Sole (foot) – Wikipedia

Bottom part of foot
The sole is the bottom of the foot. In humans the exclusive of the foot is anatomically referred to as the plantar aspect .

social organization [edit ]

deep anatomy of the sole

The glabrous skin on the lone of the foot lacks the hair’s-breadth and pigmentation found elsewhere on the body, and it has a high concentration of perspiration pores. The lone contains the thickest layers of hide on the body due to the weight that is continually placed on it. It is crossed by a set of creases that form during the early stages of embryonic development. Like those of the handle, the sweat pores of the sole lack greasy glands. The exclusive is a sensational harmonium by which we can perceive the ground while standing and walking. The hypodermic weave in the lone has adapted to deal with the high local compressive forces on the heel and the ball ( between the toes and the arch ) by developing a system of “ pressure chambers. ” Each chamber is composed of home fibrofatty tissue covered by external collagen connection tissue. The septum ( internal walls ) of these chambers are permeated by numerous blood vessels, making the lone one of the most vascularize, or blood-enriched, regions in the human body. [ 1 ] The sole and the longitudinal arch of the foot are supported by a thick connective tissue, the plantar fascia. The cardinal component of this weave extends to the supporting bones and gives two divisions–the median component and lateral pass component ; therefore they define the boundaries of the three muscle compartments of the exclusive ( see below ). [ 2 ] The bones underlying the sole form the arch of the foot. The arches might collapse late in life, resulting in flat feet .

Muscles [edit ]

intrinsic [edit ]

First layerSecond layerThird layerDorsal interosseiPlantar interossei first, second, and third gear muscle layers, and the abaxial and plantar interossei The intrinsic muscles in the sole are grouped in four layers : In the first layer, the flexor muscle digitorum brevis is the large central brawn located immediately above the plantar aponeurosis. It flexes the second to fifth toes and is flanked by kidnapper hallucis and kidnapper digiti minimi. [ 2 ] In the second layer, the quadratus plantae, located below flexor muscle digitorum brevis, inserts into the tendon of flexor muscle digitorum longus on which the lumbricals originate. [ 2 ] In the third layer, the oblique mind of adductor hallucis joins the muscle ‘s cross head on the lateral side of the big toe. medially to adductor hallucis are the two heads of flexor muscle hallucis brevis, deep to the tendon of flexor muscle hallucis longus. The well smaller flexor muscle digiti minimi brevis on the lateral side can be mistaken for one of the interossei. [ 2 ] In the fourthly layer. the abaxial and plantar interossei are located between and below the metatarsal bones and act as antagonists. [ 2 ] The central compartment is shared by the lumbricals, quadratus plantae, flexor muscle digitorum brevis, and adductor hallucis ; the medial compartment by abductor hallucis, flexor muscle hallucis brevis, kidnapper digiti minimi, flexor muscle digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi ( often considered part of the former muscle ) ; whilst the lateral compartment is occupied by extensor muscle digitorum brevis and extensor muscle hallucis brevis. [ 3 ]

extrinsic [edit ]

The tendons of several extrinsic animal foot brawn reach the sole :

Nerve add [edit ]

The soles of the feet are highly sensitive to touch due to a eminent concentration of nerve endings, with vitamin a many as 200,000 per sole. [ 5 ] This makes them sensitive to surfaces that are walked on, delicate and some people find them to be erogenous zones. [ 6 ] medically, the soles are the site of the plantar reflex, the testing of which can be afflictive ascribable to the sole ‘s sensitivity.

The bass fibular nerve from the coarse fibular steel provides the centripetal innervation of the skin between the foremost and second toes and the motive excitation of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg and abaxial foot. damage to the deep fibular heart can result in foot drop. [ 7 ] The plantar digital nerves from the median plantar boldness provide centripetal excitation to the skin of the plantar aspect of the toes, except the medial contribution of the boastfully toe and the lateral part of the little toe and the motor excitation of the first gear lumbrical. [ 7 ] The proper plantar boldness from the coarse plantar digital steel provide centripetal innervation to the plantar airfoil of the toes adenine well as the abaxial expression of the distal interphalangeal phalanges. It besides provides motive innervation to flexor hallucis brevis. [ 7 ] The superficial and deep branches of the lateral plantar heart from the tibial nerve provide sensational innervation to the skin of the lateral pass side of the sole, to the fifth and half the one-fourth toes, and the nail bed of these toes. They besides provide motor innervation to quadratus plantae, abductor digiti minimi, flexor muscle digiti minimi brevis, lateral three lumbricals, adductor hallucis, and the dorsal and plantar interossei. [ 7 ] The medial plantar heart from the tibial nerve provides sensational innervation to the peel of the median side of the sole, the skin of the median three and a one-half toes, and the nail beds of these toes. It besides provides motor excitation to abductor hallucis, flexor muscle hallucis brevis, flexor muscle digitorum brevis, and the first lumbrical. [ 7 ] The saphenous steel from the femoral nerve provides sensational innervation to the median side of the foot adenine well as the medial side of the branch. Likewise, the sural heart provides centripetal innervation to the skin on the lateral side of the foot deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the skin on the back tooth view of the lower branch. [ 7 ] The tibial boldness from the sciatic steel provides sensory excitation to the skin of the sole and toes, and the dorsal expression of the toes. It provides drive excitation to plantaris, tibialis posterior, flexor muscle hallucis longus, flexor muscle digitorum longus american samoa well as buttocks muscles in the branch. [ 7 ]

club and culture [edit ]

The aim of protecting the sole against uncomfortable and harmful impacts of the environment during locomotion initiated the general introduction of footwear in early human history. The achieve security of the susceptible soles provided for faster and well more efficient apparent motion particularly in adverse environmental terrains as against walking or running in bare feet. The sensitivity of the lone makes it an objective for animal touch, tickling or sexual stimulation and besides a prey for means of bodied punishment. [ 8 ] The beat of the soles of a person ‘s bare feet ( foundation worst or “ bastinado ” ) with specific objects such as rods and canes has hereby served as a means of corporal punishment and discipline in assorted civilizations to this day. The application of this measure is largely found in prisons and alike institutions, such as schools and reformatories. It is besides a common method acting of physical torment. In Thailand, Saudi Arabia, and some Muslim countries it is considered offensive to sit raising the stage so the uncover sole of the foot is visible and therefore forbidden. [ 9 ]

early animals [edit ]

planetary animals using their soles for locomotion are called plantigrade. In chimpanzees, the soles are furrowed with creases deeper and more distinct than in their palms. In the palm, the convention concentration is thickest in the central part, but in the sole, the density is thick near the big toe whilst large separate of the remaining sole is covered by thick, tight, and smooth skin about without furrows. [ 10 ] In pygmy chimpanzee, the radiation pattern intensity of the cuticular ridges ( i.e. “ fingerprints ” ) of the palms and soles is well higher than in chimpanzees. Whilst the pattern intensity in the palm is the highest of all species of apes, in the sole, the concentration decreases and is comparable to other apes. [ 11 ]

clinical meaning [edit ]

The sole is subject to many hide diseases .

See besides [edit ]

This article uses anatomic terminology

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

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