human behavior | Definition, Theories, Characteristics, Examples, Types, & Facts

Most scientific inquiry on human development has concentrated on the time period from parturition through early adolescence, owing to both the celerity and magnitude of the psychological changes observed during those phases and to the fact that they culminate in the optimum genial functioning of early adulthood. A elementary motivation of many investigators in the field has been to determine how the culminate mental abilities of adulthood were reached during the past phases. This essay will concentrate, therefore, on human growth during the first 12 years of liveliness. Humans, like early animal species, have a typical life course that consists of consecutive phases of emergence, each of which is characterized by a distinct set of physical, physiological, and behavioral features. These phases are prenatal liveliness, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood ( including old old age ). Human development, or developmental psychology, is a field of study that attempts to describe and explain the changes in human cognitive, emotional, and behavioral capabilities and functioning over the entire life bridge, from the fetus to old senesce .

Theories of development

The systematic study of children is less than 200 years old, and the huge majority of its research has been published since the mid-1940s. basic philosophical differences over the fundamental nature of children and their growth occupied psychologists during much of the twentieth hundred. The most important of such controversies concerned the relative importance of genetic endowment and environment, or “ nature ” and “ nourish, ” in determining development during infancy and childhood. Most researchers came to recognize, however, that it is the interaction of congenital biological factors with external factors, rather than the mutually exclusive action or predominance of one or the other force, that guides and influences homo development. The advances in cognition, emotion, and behaviour that normally occur at certain points in the animation straddle require both growth ( i.e., genetically driven biological changes in the central nervous organization ) and events, experiences, and influences in the physical and social environment. Generally, growth by itself can not cause a psychological officiate to emerge ; it does, however, permit such a function to occur and sets limits on its earliest time of appearance.

Three outstanding theories of human development emerged in the twentieth century, each addressing unlike aspects of psychological emergence. In retrospect, these and other theories seem to have been neither logically rigorous nor able to account for both intellectual and emotional growth within the same framework. research in the field has thus tended to be descriptive, since developmental psychology lacks a tight final of interlocking theoretical propositions that reliably permit satisfying explanations.

Psychoanalytic theories

early psychoanalytical theories of human behaviour were set forth most notably by austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. Freud ’ s ideas were influenced by Charles Darwin ’ s hypothesis of evolution and by the physical concept of energy as applied to the central anxious system. Freud ’ s most basic hypothesis was that each child is born with a reservoir of basic psychological energy called libido. Further, each child ’ second libido becomes successively focused on diverse parts of the body ( in addition to people and objects ) in the course of his or her emotional development. During the first postnatal year, libido is initially focused on the sass and its activities ; nursing enables the baby to derive gratification through a enjoyable reduction of tension in the oral region. Freud called this the oral stagecoach of exploitation. During the second year, the beginning of excitation is said to shift to the anal area, and the depart of toilet train leads the child to invest libido in the anal functions. Freud called this period of development the anal degree. During the period from three through six years, the child ’ s attention is attracted to sensations from the genitals, and Freud called this stage the phallic stage. The half twelve years before puberty are called the latency stage. During the final and alleged genital degree of development, mature gratification is sought in a heterosexual love relationship with another. Freud believed that adult emotional problems result from either privation or excessive gratification during the oral, anal, or phallic stages. A child with libido fixated at one of these stages would in adulthood testify specific neurotic symptoms, such as anxiety.

Freud devised an influential theory of personality structure. According to him, a wholly unconscious mental structure called the id contains a person ’ south connatural, inherited drives and instinctual forces and is closely identified with his or her basic psychological energy ( libido ). During infancy and childhood, the ego, which is the reality-oriented part of the personality, develops to balance and complement the id. The ego utilizes a variety of conscious and unconscious mental processes to try to satisfy id instincts while besides trying to maintain the individual well in sexual intercourse to the environment. Although id impulses are constantly directed toward obtaining immediate gratification of one ’ sulfur major instinctual drives ( sexual activity, affection, aggression, self-preservation ), the ego functions to set limits on this action. In Freud ’ mho terminology, as the child grows, the world principle gradually begins to control the pleasure rationale ; the child learns that the environment does not always permit immediate gratification. Child growth, according to Freud, is frankincense chiefly concerned with the emergence of the functions of the self, which is responsible for channeling the discharge of cardinal drives and for controlling intellectual and perceptual functions in the serve of negotiating realistically with the outside earth. Although Freud made great contributions to psychological theory—particularly in his concept of unconscious urges and motivations—his elegant concepts can not be verified through scientific experiment and empirical notice. But his concentration on emotional growth in early on childhood influenced even those schools of idea that rejected his theories. The impression that personality is affected by both biological and psychosocial forces operating chiefly within the family, with the major foundations being laid early in life, continues to prove fruitful in research on baby and child development. Freud ’ second stress on biological and psychosexual motives in personality development was modified by German-born american english analyst Erik Erikson to include psychosocial and sociable factors. Erikson viewed emotional development over the life cross as a sequence of stages during which there occur important inside conflicts whose successful resolving power depends on both the child and his or her environment. These conflicts can be thought of as interactions between instinctual drives and motives on the one hand and social and early external factors on the early. Erikson evolved eight stages of development, the first base four of which are : ( 1 ) infancy, entrust versus distrust, ( 2 ) early childhood, autonomy versus shame and doubt, ( 3 ) preschool, first step versus guilt, and ( 4 ) school historic period, industry versus inferiority. Conflicts at any one stage must be resolved if personality problems are to be avoided. ( Erikson ’ s developmental stages during adulthood are discussed below in the section Development in adulthood and old old age. )

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