western Romance speech
Reading: Catalan language
A speaker of Catalan ( Majorcan dialect ) .Artur Mas, former president of Catalonia, discussing individual identity, collective identity and language. Catalan ( ; [ 4 ] [ 5 ] autonym : català or llengua catalana ; Eastern Catalan : [ kətəˈla ] ), known in the Valencian Community and Carche as Valencian, is a western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin. It is the official linguistic process of Andorra, and a co-official linguistic process of three autonomous communities in eastern Spain : Catalonia, the Valencian Community, and the Balearic Islands. It besides has semi-official status in the italian comune of Alghero. [ 7 ] It is besides spoken in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France and in two further areas in eastern Spain : the easterly strip of Aragon and the Carche area in the Region of Murcia. The Catalan-speaking territories are often called the Països Catalans or “ catalan Countries ”. The lyric evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees. Nineteenth-century Spain saw a Catalan literary revival, culminating in the early 1900s .
etymology and pronunciation [edit ]
The give voice Catalan is derived from the territorial name of Catalonia, itself of disputed etymology. The main hypothesis suggests that Catalunya ( Latin Gathia Launia ) derives from the name Gothia or Gauthia ( “ Land of the Goths ” ), since the origins of the Catalan counts, lords and people were found in the March of Gothia, whence Gothland > Gothlandia > Gothalania > Catalonia theoretically derived. In English, the condition referring to a person first appears in the mid fourteenth hundred as Catelaner, followed in the fifteenth century as Catellain ( from French ). It is attested a language name since at least 1652. The son Catalan can be pronounced in English as, or. [ 12 ] [ 5 ] The endonym is pronounced [ kətəˈla ] in the Eastern Catalan dialects, and [ kataˈla ] in the western dialects. In the Valencian Community and Carche, the term valencià [ valenˈsja, ba- ] is frequently used alternatively. frankincense, the name “ Valencian ”, although often employed for referring to the varieties specific to the Valencian Community and Carche, is besides used by Valencians as a name for the language as a whole, [ 13 ] synonymous with “ Catalan ”. [ 13 ] Both uses of the term have their respective entries in the dictionaries by the AVL [ note 1 ] and the IEC. [ note 2 ] See besides status of Valencian downstairs .
history [edit ]
Greuges de Guitard Isarn (ca. 1080–1095), one of the earliest texts written almost completely in Catalan, predating the famous Homilies d’Organyà by a century break up of the ( ca. 1080–1095 ), one of the earliest textbook written about wholly in Catalan, predating the famousby a century linguistic map of Southwestern Europe
Middle Ages [edit ]
By the ninth century, Catalan had evolved from Vulgar Latin on both sides of the eastern end of the Pyrenees, arsenic well as the territories of the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis to the south. From the eighth century onwards the Catalan counts extended their territory southwards and westwards at the expense of the Muslims, bringing their terminology with them. This procedure was given definitive drift with the separation of the County of Barcelona from the carolingian Empire in 988. In the eleventh century, documents written in macaronic Latin begin to show Catalan elements, with text written about completely in Romance appearing by 1080. Old Catalan shared many features with Gallo-Romance, diverging from Old Occitan between the 11th and 14th centuries. During the 11th and 12th centuries the Catalan rulers expanded up to north of the Ebro river, and in the thirteenth hundred they conquered the Land of Valencia and the Balearic Islands. The city of Alghero in Sardinia was repopulated with Catalan speakers in the fourteenth century. The speech besides reached Murcia, which became Spanish-speaking in the fifteenth hundred. In the Low Middle Ages, Catalan went through a gold historic period, reaching a point of maturity and cultural fullness. Examples include the work of Majorcan polymath Ramon Llull ( 1232–1315 ), the Four Great Chronicles ( 13th–14th centuries ), and the Valencian school of poetry culminating in Ausiàs March ( 1397–1459 ). By the fifteenth century, the city of Valencia had become the sociocultural center of the Crown of Aragon, and Catalan was salute all over the Mediterranean worldly concern. During this period, the Royal Chancery propagated a highly exchangeable speech. Catalan was widely used as an official speech in Sicily until the fifteenth hundred, and in Sardinia until the 17th. During this period, the language was what Costa Carreras terms “ one of the ‘great languages ‘ of medieval Europe ”. Martorell ‘s great fresh of chivalry Tirant lo Blanc ( 1490 ) shows a transition from Medieval to Renaissance values, something that can besides be seen in Metge ‘s work. The first book produced with movable character in the iberian Peninsula was printed in Catalan. [ 19 ]
Start of the modern earned run average [edit ]
With the union of the crowns of Castille and Aragon in 1479, the habit of spanish gradually became more prestigious and marked the start of the refuse of Catalan. Starting in the sixteenth century, Catalan literature came under the influence of spanish, and the urban and literary classes became bilingual. With the Treaty of the Pyrenees ( 1659 ), Spain ceded the northerly part of Catalonia to France, and soon thereafter the local Catalan varieties came under the influence of French, which in 1700 became the sole official language of the region. [ 20 ] shortly after the french Revolution ( 1789 ), the french First Republic prohibited official use of, and enacted discriminating policies against, the regional languages of France, such as Catalan, Alsatian, Breton, Occitan, Flemish, and Basque .
France : 19th to 20th centuries [edit ]
official rule prohibiting the Catalan terminology in France “ Speak French, be uninfected ”, educate wall in Ayguatébia-Talau, 2010 Following the french establishment of the colony of Algeria from 1830 ahead, it received several waves of Catalan-speaking settlers. People from the spanish Alacant province settled about Oran, whereas Algiers received immigration from Northern Catalonia and Menorca. Their speech was known as patuet. By 1911, the phone number of Catalan speakers was around 100,000. After the resolution of independence of Algeria in 1962, about all the Catalan speakers fled to Northern Catalonia ( as Pieds-Noirs ) or Alacant. The government of France formally recognizes only french as an official language. Nevertheless, on 10 December 2007, the General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales formally recognized Catalan as one of the languages of the department [ 22 ] and seeks to far advertise it in populace life and education .
Spain : 18th to 20th centuries [edit ]
The descent of Catalan continued in the 16th and 17th centuries. The kill of the pro-Habsburg coalition in the War of spanish Succession ( 1714 ) initiated a serial of laws which, among early centralizing measures, imposed the habit of spanish in legal documentation all over Spain. however, the nineteenth century saw a Catalan literary revival ( Renaixença ), which has continued up to the present day. This time period starts with Aribau ‘s Ode to the Homeland ( 1833 ) ; followed in the second half of the nineteenth hundred, and the early 20th by the work of Verdaguer ( poetry ), Oller ( realist fresh ), and Guimerà ( drama ). In the nineteenth century, the area of Carche, in the province of Murcia was repopulated with Catalan speakers from the Land of Valencia. The second spanish Republic ( 1931–1939 ) saw a abbreviated time period of tolerance, with most restrictions against Catalan being lifted. Despite orthographic standardization in 1913 and the official status of the language during the Second Spanish Republic, the Francoist dictatorship banned the habit of Catalan in schools and in the public administration between 1939 and 1975. [ 25 ] Franco ‘s desire for a homogeneous spanish population resonated with some Catalonians in favor of his regimen, chiefly members of the upper course, who began to reject the use of Catalan. In summation to the loss of prestige for Catalan and the prohibition of its consumption in schools, migration during the 1950s into Catalonia from other parts of Spain besides contributed to the diminished use of the linguistic process. These migrants were often unaware of the being of Catalan, and frankincense felt no need to learn or use it. Despite all of these hardships, Catalan continued to be used privately within households, and was able to survive after the end of Franco ‘s dictatorship. [ 26 ]
salute day [edit ]
Since the spanish transition to democracy ( 1975–1982 ), Catalan has been institutionalized as an official linguistic process, lyric of education, and language of multitude media ; all of which have contributed to its increased prestige. In Catalonia, there is an alone large bilingual european non-state linguistic community. The teaching of Catalan is mandate in all schools, but it is potential to use spanish for studying in the public education system of Catalonia in two situations – if the teacher assigned to a class chooses to use spanish, or during the determine process of one or more recently arrived immigrant students. [ 28 ] There is besides some intergenerational shift towards Catalan. According to the Statistical Institute of Catalonia, in 2013 the Catalan linguistic process is the second gear most normally used in Catalonia, after spanish, as a native or self-defining speech : 7 % of the population self-identifies with both Catalan and Spanish evenly, 36.4 % with Catalan and 47.5 % only spanish. [ 29 ] In 2003 the like studies concluded no terminology preference for self-identification within the population above 15 years old : 5 % self-identified with both languages, 44.3 % with Catalan and 47.5 % with spanish. [ 30 ] To promote manipulation of Catalan, the Generalitat de Catalunya ( Catalonia ‘s official autonomous politics ) spends separate of its annual budget on the promotion of the use of Catalan in Catalonia and in other territories, with entities such as Consorci per a lanthanum Normalització Lingüística [ ca ; es ] ( Consortium for Linguistic Normalization ) [ 31 ] [ 32 ] In Andorra, Catalan has constantly been the sole official lyric. Since the announcement of the 1993 constitution, several policies favoring Catalan have been enforced, like Catalan medium education. On the early hand, there are several speech shift processes presently taking home. In the Northern Catalonia area of France, Catalan has followed the same vogue as the other minority languages of France, with most of its native speakers being 60 or older ( as of 2004 ). Catalan is studied as a foreign language by 30 % of the primary department of education students, and by 15 % of the junior-grade. The cultural association La Bressola promotes a network of community-run schools engaged in Catalan terminology ingress programs. In Alicante province, Catalan is being replaced by spanish and in Alghero by italian. There is besides well impress diglossia in the Valencian Community, Ibiza, and to a lesser extent, in the rest of the Balearic islands .
classification and relationship with early Romance languages [edit ]
Chart of Romance languages based on geomorphologic and comparative criteria ( not on socio-functional ones ). Koryakov ( 2001 ) includes Catalan in Occitano-Romance, distinct from iberian Romance One classification of Catalan is given by Pèire Bèc :
however, the attribution of Catalan to the Occitano-Romance branch of Gallo-Romance languages is not shared by all linguists and philologists, particularly among spanish ones, such as Ramón Menéndez Pidal. Catalan bears varying degrees of similarity to the linguistic varieties subsumed under the cover term Occitan language ( see besides differences between Occitan and Catalan and Gallo-Romance languages ). thus, as it should be expected from closely related languages, Catalan today shares many traits with other Romance languages .
relationship with other Romance languages [edit ]
Some include Catalan in Occitan, as the linguistic distance between this lyric and some Occitan dialects ( such as the Gascon lyric ) is similar to the distance among different Occitan dialects. Catalan was considered a dialect of Occitan until the end of the nineteenth century [ 34 ] and still today remains its close relative. [ 35 ] Catalan shares many traits with the early neighbor romance languages ( Occitan, French, Italian, Sardinian a well as spanish and portuguese among others ). however, despite being spoken largely on the iberian Peninsula, Catalan has marked differences with the iberian Romance group ( spanish and portuguese ) in terms of pronunciation, grammar, and particularly vocabulary ; showing rather its closest affinity with languages native to France and northern Italy, particularly Occitan and to a lesser extent Gallo-Romance ( Franco-Provençal, French, Gallo-Italian ). [ 39 ] According to Ethnologue, the lexical similarity between Catalan and early Romance languages is : 87 % with italian ; 85 % with Portuguese and Spanish ; 76 % with Ladin ; 75 % with sardinian ; and 73 % with romanian. [ 43 ]
Lexical comparison of 24 words among Romance languages:
17 cognates with Gallo-Romance, 5 isoglosses with Iberian Romance, 3 isoglosses with Occitan, and 1 unique word.
gri, sur, cenușiu
orar, rezar, pregar
a se ruga
a cere, a întreba
comer (manyar in lunfardo; papear in slang)
comer (papar in slang), manjar
Catalan and Spanish cognates with different meanings
“to bring closer”
“to put to bed”
“woman or wife”
During much of its history, and particularly during the Francoist dictatorship ( 1939–1975 ), the Catalan terminology was ridiculed as a bare dialect of spanish. This horizon, based on political and ideological considerations, has no linguistic cogency. spanish and Catalan have crucial differences in their sound systems, dictionary, and grammatical features, placing the language in features closer to Occitan ( and French ). There is evidence that, at least from the second century ad, the vocabulary and phonology of Roman Tarraconensis was different from the rest of Roman Hispania. Differentiation arose by and large because spanish, Asturian, and Galician-Portuguese parcel certain peripheral archaisms ( spanish hervir, Asturian and portuguese ferver vs. Catalan bullir, Occitan bolir “ to boil ” ) and innovatory regionalisms ( Sp novillo, Ast nuviellu vs. Cat torell, Oc taurèl “ bullock ” ), while Catalan has a shared history with the western Romance advanced core, particularly Occitan. Like all Romance languages, Catalan has a handful of native words which are unique to it, or rare elsewhere. These include :
- verbs: cōnfīgere ‘to fasten; transfix’ > confegir ‘to compose, write up’, congemināre > conjuminar ‘to combine, conjugate’, de-ex-somnitare > deixondar/-ir ‘to wake; awaken’, dēnsāre ‘to thicken; crowd together’ > desar ‘to save, keep’, īgnōrāre > enyorar ‘to miss, yearn, pine for’, indāgāre ‘to investigate, track’ > Old Catalan enagar ‘to incite, induce’, odiāre > OCat ujar ‘to exhaust, fatigue’, pācificāre > apaivagar ‘to appease, mollify’, repudiāre > rebutjar ‘to reject, refuse’;
- nouns: brīsa > brisa ‘pomace’, buda > boga ‘reedmace’, catarrhu > cadarn ‘catarrh’, congesta > congesta ‘snowdrift’, dēlīrium > deler ‘ardor, passion’, fretu > freu ‘brake’, lābem > (a)llau ‘avalanche’, ōra > vora ‘edge, border’, pistrīce ‘sawfish’ > pestriu > pestiu ‘thresher shark, smooth hound; ray’, prūna ‘live coal’ > espurna ‘spark’, tardātiōnem > tardaó > tardor ‘autumn’.
The Gothic superstrate produced unlike outcomes in spanish and Catalan. For model, Catalan fang “ mud ” and rostir “ to roast ”, of Germanic origin, contrast with spanish lodo and asar, of Latin origin ; whereas Catalan filosa “ spinning rack ” and templa “ temple ”, of Latin beginning, contrast with spanish rueca and sien, of Germanic origin. The like happens with Arabic loanwords. therefore, Catalan alfàbia “ large earthenware jolt ” and rajola “ tile ”, of Arabic beginning, contrast with spanish tinaja and teja, of Latin origin ; whereas Catalan oli “ oil ” and oliva “ olive ”, of Latin origin, contrast with spanish aceite and aceituna. however, the Arabic chemical element in spanish is broadly much more prevailing. Situated between two boastfully linguistic blocks ( iberian Romance and Gallo-Romance ), Catalan has many alone lexical choices, such as enyorar “ to miss person ”, apaivagar “ to calm person down ”, and rebutjar “ reject ” .
geographic distribution [edit ]
Catalan-speaking territories [edit ]
traditionally Catalan-speaking territories are sometimes called the Països Catalans ( Catalan Countries ), a appellation based on cultural affinity and park inheritance, that has besides had a subsequent political rendition but no official status. respective interpretations of the term may include some or all of these regions .
Number of speakers [edit ]
The number of people known to be fluent in Catalan varies depending on the sources used. A 2004 study did not count the total act of speakers, but estimated a total of 9–9.5 million by matching the share of speakers to the population of each area where Catalan is spoken. [ 51 ] The world wide web site of the Generalitat de Catalunya estimated that as of 2004 there were 9,118,882 speakers of Catalan. [ 52 ] These figures alone reflect electric potential speakers ; today it is the native lyric of only 35.6 % of the Catalan population. [ 53 ] According to Ethnologue, Catalan had four million native speakers and five million second-language speakers in 2012. [ citation needed ] According to a 2011 sketch the full number of Catalan speakers is over 9.8 million, with 5.9 million rest in Catalonia. More than half of them speak Catalan as a second language, with native speakers being about 4.4 million of those ( more than 2.8 in Catalonia ). [ 54 ] Very few Catalan monoglots exist ; basically, about all of the Catalan speakers in Spain are bilingual speakers of Catalan and Spanish, with a ample population of Spanish-only speakers of immigrant origin ( typically born outside Catalonia or with both parents born outside Catalonia ) [ citation needed ] existing in the major Catalan urban areas deoxyadenosine monophosphate well. In Roussillon, only a minority of french Catalans speak Catalan nowadays, with french being the majority speech for the inhabitants after a cover process of lyric shift. According to a 2019 review by the Catalan government, 31.5 % of the inhabitants of Catalonia have Catalan as first speech at home whereas 52.7 % have Spanish, 2.8 % both Catalan and Spanish and 10.8 % other languages. [ 55 ] spanish is the most address linguistic process in Barcelona ( according to the linguistic census held by the Government of Catalonia in 2013 ) and it is understood about universally. According to this census of 2013 Catalan is besides very normally spoken in the city of 1,501,262 : it is understood by 95 % of the population, while 72.3 % over the age of 2 can speak it ( 1,137,816 ), 79 % can read it ( 1,246.555 ), and 53 % can write it ( 835,080 ). [ 56 ] The proportion in Barcelona who can speak it, 72.3 %, [ 57 ] is lower than that of the overall Catalan population, of whom 81.2 % over the age of 15 speak the lyric. Knowledge of Catalan has increased importantly in holocene decades thanks to a language concentration educational system. An important social characteristic of the Catalan language is that all the areas where it is spoken are bilingual in exercise : together with the french language in Roussillon, with italian in Alghero, with spanish and french in Andorra and with spanish in the respite of the territories .
level of cognition [edit ]
Franja Oriental of Aragón
( % of the population 15 years erstwhile and older ) .
Social use [edit ]
Franja Oriental of Aragón
( % of the population 15 years old and older ) .
native speech [edit ]
Franja Oriental of Aragon
[ 60 ] [ 61 ] [ 62 ]
phonology [edit ]
Catalan phonology varies by dialect. luminary features include :
- Marked contrast of the vowel pairs /ɛ e/ and /ɔ o/, as in other Western Romance languages, other than Spanish.
- Lack of diphthongization of Latin short ĕ, ŏ, as in Galician and Portuguese, but unlike French, Spanish, or Italian.
- Abundance of diphthongs containing /w/, as in Galician and Portuguese.
In line to other Romance languages, Catalan has many monosyllabic words, and these may end in a wide assortment of consonants, including some consonant clusters. additionally, Catalan has concluding obstruent devoice, which gives rise to an abundance of such couplets as amic “ ( male friend ” ) volt. amiga ( “ female friend ” ). central Catalan pronunciation is considered to be standard for the language. The descriptions below are by and large representative of this variety show. [ 65 ] For the differences in pronunciation between the unlike dialects, see the section on pronunciation of dialects in this article .
Vowels [edit ]
Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes : /a ɛ vitamin e i ɔ o u/, a coarse feature in western Romance, with the exception of spanish. Balearic besides has instances of stress /ə/. Dialects disagree in the different degrees of vowel reduction, and the incidence of the pair /ɛ e/. In Central Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to three : /a e ɛ/ > [ ə ] ; /o ɔ u/ > [ uranium ] ; /i/ remains clear-cut. The other dialects have different vowel reduction processes ( see the section pronunciation of dialects in this article ) .
Examples of vowel reduction processes in Central Catalan
The root is stressed in the first word and unstressed in the second
gelat (“ice cream”)
banya (“he bathes”)
banyem (“we bathe”)
coseta (“little thing”)
[ ˈʒɛl ]
[ ʒəˈlat ]
[ ˈpeðɾə ]
[ pəˈðɾeɾə ]
[ ˈbaɲə ]
[ bəˈɲɛm ]
[ ˈkɔzə ]
[ kuˈzɛtə ]
[ ˈtot ]
[ tuˈtal ]
Consonants [edit ]
The accordant system of Catalan is rather conservative .
- /l/ has a velarized allophone in syllable coda position in most dialects. However, /l/ is velarized irrespective of position in Eastern dialects like Majorcan and standard Eastern Catalan.
- /v/ occurs in Balearic, Algherese, standard Valencian and some areas in southern Catalonia. It has merged with /b/ elsewhere.
- Voiced obstruents undergo final-obstruent devoicing: /b/ > [ p ], /d/ > [ deoxythymidine monophosphate ], /ɡ/ > [ k ].
- Voiced stops become lenited to approximants in syllable onsets, after continuants: /b/ > β] /d/ > ð] /ɡ/ > ɣ] /d/ after lateral consonants, and /b/ after /f/. In coda position, these sounds are realized as stops, except in some Valencian dialects where they are lenited.
- There is some confusion in the literature about the precise phonetic characteristics of /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/. Some sources describe them as “postalveolar”. Others as “back alveolo-palatal”, implying that the characters ⟨ ɕ ʑ tɕ dʑ⟩ would be more accurate. However, in all literature only the characters for palato-alveolar affricates and fricatives are used, even when the same sources use ⟨ ɕ ʑ⟩ for other languages like Polish and Chinese.
- The distribution of the two rhotics /r/ and /ɾ/ closely parallels that of Spanish. Between vowels, the two contrast, but they are otherwise in complementary distribution: in the onset of the first syllable in a word, r]ɾ]r]prosodic unit, in which case ɾ]
- In careful speech, /n/, /m/, /l/ may be geminated. Geminated /ʎ/ may also occur. Some analyze intervocalic [ r ] as the result of gemination of a single rhotic phoneme. This is similar to the common analysis of Spanish and Portuguese rhotics.
phonological development [edit ]
Sociolinguistics [edit ]
Catalan sociolinguistics studies the situation of Catalan in the worldly concern and the different varieties that this language presents. It is a subdiscipline of Catalan linguistics and other affinal studies and has as an objective to analyze the sexual intercourse between the Catalan linguistic process, the speakers and the close world ( including the one of other languages in touch ) .
discriminatory subjects of study [edit ]
- Dialects of Catalan
- Variations of Catalan by class, gender, profession, age and level of studies
- Process of linguistic normalization
- Relations between Catalan and Spanish or French
- Perception on the language of Catalan speakers and non-speakers
- Presence of Catalan in several fields: tagging, public function, media, professional sectors
Dialects [edit ]
overview [edit ]
Main dialects of Catalan The dialects of the Catalan linguistic process feature a relative uniformity, particularly when compared to other Romance languages ; both in terms of vocabulary, semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology. common intelligibility between dialects is very gamey, estimates ranging from 90 % to 95 %. [ 94 ] The only exception is the isolate idiosyncratic Algherese dialect. Catalan is split in two major dialectal blocks : Eastern Catalan, and western Catalan. The main difference lies in the treatment of unstressed a and e ; which have merged to /ə/ in Eastern dialects, but which remain distinct as /a/ and /e/ in western dialects. There are a few other differences in pronunciation, verbal morphology, and vocabulary. western Catalan comprises the two dialects of Northwestern Catalan and Valencian ; the Eastern freeze comprises four dialects : Central Catalan, Balearic, Rossellonese, and Algherese. Each dialect can be far subdivided in several subdialects. The terms “ Catalan ” and “ Valencian “ ( respectively used in Catalonia and the Valencian Community ) refer to two varieties of the lapp lyric. [ 95 ] There are two institutions regulating the two standard varieties, the Institute of Catalan Studies in Catalonia and the Valencian Academy of the Language in the Valencian Community. central Catalan is considered the standard pronunciation of the linguistic process and has the highest number of speakers. It is spoken in the densely populate regions of the Barcelona state, the eastern half of the state of Tarragona, and most of the state of Girona. Catalan has an inflectional grammar. Nouns have two genders ( masculine, feminine ), and two numbers ( singular, plural ). Pronouns additionally can have a neuter sex, and some are besides inflected for shell and politeness, and can be combined in very building complex ways. Verbs are split in respective paradigms and are inflected for person, issue, tense, aspect, mood, and sex. In terms of pronunciation, Catalan has many words ending in a wide assortment of consonants and some consonant clusters, in contrast with many other Romance languages .
pronunciation [edit ]
Vowels [edit ]
Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes : /a ɛ einsteinium one ɔ o u/, a common feature in western Romance, except spanish. Balearic has besides instances of stress /ə/. Dialects disagree in the different degrees of vowel reduction, and the incidence of the pair /ɛ e/. In Eastern Catalan ( except Majorcan ), unstressed vowels reduce to three : /a einsteinium ɛ/ > [ ə ] ; /o ɔ u/ > [ uracil ] ; /i/ remains discrete. There are a few instances of unreduced [ e ], [ o ] in some words. Algherese has lowered [ ə ] to [ a ]. In Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to four : /a einsteinium ɛ/ follow the Eastern Catalan reduction design ; however /o ɔ/ reduce to [ oxygen ], with /u/ remaining clear-cut, as in western Catalan. In western Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to five : /e ɛ/ > [ e ] ; /o ɔ/ > [ o ] ; /a u i/ remain distinct. This decrease blueprint, inherited from Proto-Romance, is besides found in italian and Portuguese. Some western dialects present far decrease or vowel harmony in some cases. Central, Western, and Balearic differ in the lexical incidence of stressed /e/ and /ɛ/. Usually, words with /ɛ/ in Central Catalan equate to /ə/ in Balearic and /e/ in western Catalan. Words with /e/ in Balearic about always have /e/ in Central and Western Catalan as well. [ vague ] As a result, Central Catalan has a much higher incidence of /ɛ/ .
Different incidence of stressed /e/, /ə/, /ɛ/
ven (“he sells”)
General differences in the pronunciation of unstressed vowels in different dialects
posar (“to put”)
/poˈza ( ɾ ) /
/puˈza ( ɾ ) /
Detailed examples of vowel reduction processes in different dialects
the first with stressed root,
the second with unstressed root
gelat (“ice cream”)
[ ˈdʒɛl ]
[ dʒeˈlat ]
[ ˈʒɛl ]
[ ʒəˈlat ]
[ ˈʒel ]
[ ʒəˈlat ]
perera (“pear tree”)
[ ˈpeɾa ]
[ peˈɾeɾa ]
[ ˈpəɾə ]
[ pəˈɾeɾə ]
[ ˈpɛɾə ]
[ pəˈɾeɾə ]
[ ˈpeɾə ]
[ pəˈɾeɾə ]
[ ˈpeðɾa ]
[ peˈðɾeɾa ]
[ ˈpeðɾə ]
[ pəˈðɾeɾə ]
banya (“he bathes”)
banyem (“we bathe”)
Majorcan: banyam (“we bathe”)
[ ˈbaɲa ]
[ baˈɲem ]
[ ˈbaɲə ]
[ bəˈɲam ]
[ ˈbaɲə ]
[ bəˈɲɛm ]
[ ˈbaɲə ]
[ bəˈɲem ]
coseta (“little thing”)
[ ˈkɔza ]
[ koˈzeta ]
[ ˈkɔzə ]
[ koˈzətə ]
[ ˈkɔzə ]
[ kuˈzɛtə ]
[ ˈkozə ]
[ kuˈzetə ]
[ ˈtot ]
[ toˈtal ]
[ ˈtot ]
[ tuˈtal ]
[ ˈtut ]
[ tuˈtal ]
Consonants [edit ]
morphology [edit ]
western Catalan : In verb, the ending for 1st-person present indicative is -e in verb of the 1st junction and -∅ in verb of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations in most of the Valencian Community, or -o in all verb conjugations in the Northern Valencian Community and Western Catalonia.
E.g. parle, tem, sent ( Valencian ) ; parlo, temo, sento ( Northwestern Catalan ). Eastern Catalan : In verb, the ending for 1st-person present indicative is -o, -i, or -∅ in all conjugations.
E.g. parlo ( Central ), parl ( Balearic ), and parli ( Northern ), all intend ( ‘I speak ‘ ) .
1st-person singular present indicative forms
‘I feel’, ‘I hear’
poleix or polesc
polisc or polesc
western Catalan : In verb, the inchoative endings are -isc / -esc, -ix, -ixen, -isca / -esca. Eastern Catalan : In verb, the inchoative endings are -eixo, -eix, -eixen, -eixi. western Catalan : In nouns and adjectives, care of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words.
E.g. hòmens ‘men ‘, jóvens ‘youth ‘. Eastern Catalan : In nouns and adjectives, loss of /n/ of chivalric plurals in proparoxytone words.
E.g. homes ‘men ‘, joves ‘youth ‘ ( Ibicencan, however, follows the mannequin of westerly Catalan in this case [ 102 ] ) .
vocabulary [edit ]
Despite its proportional lexical one, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan ( Eastern and Western ) show some differences in word choices. Any lexical deviation within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. besides, normally Central Catalan acts as an advanced element .
Selection of different words between Western and Eastern Catalan
Standards [edit ]
Casa de Convalescència, Headquarters of the Institut d’Estudis Catalans
to be born
Standard Catalan, virtually accepted by all speakers, is by and large based on Eastern Catalan, which is the most wide used dialect. Nevertheless, the standards of the Valencian Community and the Balearics admit alternative forms, by and large traditional ones, which are not stream in easterly Catalonia. The most luminary deviation between both standards is some tonic ⟨e⟩ accentuation, for example : francès, anglès ( IEC ) – francés, anglés ( AVL ). Nevertheless, AVL ‘s criterion keeps the grave accent ⟨è⟩, while pronouncing it as /e/ quite than /ɛ/, in some words like : què ( ‘what ‘ ), or València. other divergences include the manipulation of ⟨tl⟩ ( AVL ) in some words alternatively of ⟨tll⟩ like in ametla / ametlla ( ‘almond ‘ ), espatla / espatlla ( ‘back ‘ ), the use of elide demonstratives ( este ‘this ‘, eixe ‘that ‘ ) in the same level as built ones ( aquest, aqueix ) or the use of many verbal forms common in Valencian, and some of these common in the rest of western Catalan besides, like subjunctive mood temper or inchoative coupling in -ix- at the same grade as -eix- or the precedence use of -e morpheme in 1st person remarkable in confront indicative ( -ar verb ) : jo compre rather of jo compro ( ‘I bargain ‘ ). In the Balearic Islands, IEC ‘s standard is used but adapted for the Balearic dialect by the University of the Balearic Islands ‘s philological section. In this way, for case, IEC says it is right writing cantam deoxyadenosine monophosphate much as cantem ( ‘we sing ‘ ) but the University says that the priority form in the Balearic Islands must be cantam in all fields. Another feature of the Balearic standard is the non-ending in the 1st person singular present indicative mood : jo compr ( ‘I buy ‘ ), jo tem ( ‘I reverence ‘ ), jo dorm ( ‘I rest ‘ ). In Alghero, the IEC has adapted its standard to the Algherese dialect. In this standard one can find, among other features : the definite article lo alternatively of el, special possessive pronouns and determinants la mia ( ‘mine ‘ ), lo sou/la sua ( ‘his/her ‘ ), lo tou/la tua ( ‘yours ‘ ), and so on, the use of -v- /v/ in the progressive tense in all conjugations : cantava, creixiva, llegiva ; the use of many archaic words, common words in Algherese : manco alternatively of menys ( ‘less ‘ ), calqui u rather of algú ( ‘someone ‘ ), qual/quala alternatively of quin/quina ( ‘which ‘ ), and so on ; and the adaptation of weak pronouns. In 2011, [ 104 ] the Aragonese government passed a rule approving the statutes of a new terminology regulator of Catalan in La Franja ( the alleged Catalan-speaking areas of Aragon ) as in the first place provided for by Law 10/2009. [ 105 ] The new entity, designated as Acadèmia Aragonesa del Català, shall allow a facultative department of education in Catalan and a standardization of the Catalan terminology in La Franja .
Status of Valencian [edit ]
Subdialects of Valencian Valencian is classified as a western dialect, along with the northwestern varieties spoken in western Catalonia ( provinces of Lleida and the westerly one-half of Tarragona ). The assorted forms of Catalan and Valencian are mutually apprehensible ( ranging from 90 % to 95 % ) [ 94 ] Linguists, including Valencian scholars, bargain with Catalan and Valencian as the lapp linguistic process. The official regulation body of the language of the Valencian Community, the Valencian Academy of Language ( Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL ) declares the linguistic oneness between Valencian and Catalan varieties. [ 13 ]
[ T ] he historical ancestral language of the Valencian people, from a philological point of view, is the same shared by the autonomous communities of Catalonia and Balearic islands, and Principality of Andorra. additionally, it is the ancestral diachronic speech of other territories of the ancient Crown of Aragon [ … ] The different varieties of these territories constitute a speech, that is, a “ linguistic arrangement ” [ … ] From this group of varieties, Valencian has the same hierarchy and dignity as any early dialectal modality of that linguistic system [ … ]
regnant of the Valencian Language Academy of 9 February 2005, distill of orient 1. [ 13 ] [ 106 ]
The AVL, created by the Valencian fantan, is in tear of dictating the official rules governing the use of Valencian, and its standard is based on the Norms of Castelló ( Normes de Castelló ). Currently, everyone who writes in Valencian uses this standard, except the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture ( Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV ), which uses for Valencian an independent standard. Despite the position of the official organizations, an opinion pate carried out between 2001 and 2004 [ 107 ] showed that the majority of the Valencian people consider Valencian unlike from Catalan. This position is promoted by people who do not use Valencian regularly. furthermore, the datum indicates that younger generations educated in Valencian are much less likely to hold these views. A minority of Valencian scholars active in fields other than linguistics defends the placement of the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture ( Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV ), which uses for Valencian a standard autonomous from Catalan. [ 108 ] This clash of opinions has sparked much controversy. For exemplar, during the enlist of the european constitution in 2004, the spanish government supplied the EU with translations of the text into Basque, Galician, Catalan, and Valencian, but the latter two were identical. [ 109 ]
vocabulary [edit ]
Word choices [edit ]
Despite its proportional lexical one, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan ( Eastern and Western ) show some differences in news choices. Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. besides, normally Central Catalan acts as an innovative element. Literary Catalan allows the manipulation of words from different dialects, except those of very restricted use. however, from the nineteenth century onwards, there has been a tendency towards favoring words of Northern dialects to the detriment of others, even though nowadays there is a greater freedom of choice. [ clarify ]
Latin and Greek loanwords [edit ]
Like early languages, Catalan has a bombastic list of loanwords from Greek and Latin. This serve started very early on, and one can find such examples in Ramon Llull ‘s work. In the 14th and 15th centuries Catalan had a far greater number of Greco-Latin loanwords than other Romance languages, as is attested for case in Roís de Corella ‘s writings. The internalization of learned, or “ bookish ” words from its own ancestor linguistic process, Latin, into Catalan is arguably another form of lexical adopt through the influence of written lyric and the liturgical terminology of the Church. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern menstruation, most literate catalan speakers were besides literate in Latin ; and therefore they well adopted latin words into their writing—and finally speech—in Catalan .
Word geological formation [edit ]
The process of morphologic deriving in Catalan follows the same principles as the other Romance languages, where agglutination is common. many times, several affixes are appended to a preexistent lexeme, and some sound alternations can occur, for example elèctric [ əˈlɛktri k ] ( “ electric ” ) five. electricitat [ ələktri s iˈtat ]. Prefixes are normally appended to verbs, as in preveure ( “ foresee ” ). There is greater regularity in the march of word-compounding, where one can find compounded words formed much like those in English .
Common types of word compounds in Catalan
two nouns, the second assimilated to the first
noun delimited by an adjective
noun delimited by another noun and a preposition
verb radical with a nominal object
noun delimited by an adjective, with adjectival value
Writing system [edit ]
novel·la (“novel”) in a dictionary. The geminated L (l·l) is a distinctive character used in Catalan. The word ( “ novel ” ) in a dictionary. The reduplicate L ( ) is a classifiable character used in Catalan . il·lusió (“illusion”) Billboard in Barcelona ( detail ), showing the give voice ( “ delusion ” )
catalan uses the Latin handwriting, with some add symbols and digraph. The Catalan orthography is systematic and largely phonologically based. calibration of Catalan was among the topics discussed during the First International Congress of the Catalan Language, held in Barcelona October 1906. subsequently, the Philological section of the Institut d’Estudis Catalans ( IEC, founded in 1911 ) published the Normes ortogràfiques in 1913 under the direction of Antoni Maria Alcover and Pompeu Fabra. In 1932, Valencian writers and intellectuals gathered in Castelló de la Plana to make a formal borrowing of the alleged Normes de Castelló, a determine of guidelines following Pompeu Fabra ‘s Catalan language norms. [ 112 ]
Pronunciation of Catalan special characters and digraphs (Central Catalan)
feliç [ fəˈlis ] (“happy”)
/ɡ/ ( [ ɡ~ɣ ]) before i and e
guerra [ ˈɡɛrə ] (“war”)
guant [ ˈɡwan ] (“glove”)
[ tʃ ] in final position
raig [ ˈratʃ ] (“trickle”)
/ʃ/ ( [ jʃ ] in some dialects)
caixa [ ˈkaʃə ] (“box”)
lloc [ ʎɔk ] (“place”)
Normatively /l : /, but usually /l/
novel·la [ nuˈβɛlə ] (“novel”)
Catalunya [ kətəˈɫuɲə ] (“Catalonia”)
/k/ before i and e
qui [ ˈki ] (“who”)
/kw/ before other vowels
quatre [ ˈkwatrə ] (“four”)
Intervocalic s is pronounced /z/
grossa [ ˈɡɾɔsə ] (“big- feminine)”
casa [ ˈkazə ] (“house”)
[ ddʒ ]
fetge [ ˈfeddʒə ] (“liver”), mitjó [ midˈdʒo ] (“sock”)
[ tʃ ]
despatx [ dəsˈpatʃ ] (“office”)
[ ddz ]
dotze [ ˈdoddzə ] (“twelve”)
Letters and digraphs with contextually conditioned pronunciations (Central Catalan)
/s/ before i and e
corresponds to ç in other contexts
feliç (“happy- masculine-singular”) – felices (“happy- feminine-plural”)
caço (“I hunt”) – caces (“you hunt”)
/ʒ/ before e and i
corresponds to j in other positions
envejar (“to envy”) – envegen (“they envy”)
final g + stressed i, and final ig before other vowels,
are pronounced [ tʃ ]
corresponds to j~g or tj~tg in other positions
boig [ ‘bɔtʃ ] (“mad- masculine”) – boja [ ‘bɔʒə ] (“mad- womanly”) –boges [ ‘bɔʒəs ] (“mad- womanly plural”)
desig [ də’zitʃ ] (“wish”) – desitjar (“to wish”) – desitgem (“we wish”)
/ɡ/ before e and i
corresponds to g in other positions
botiga (“shop”) – botigues (“shops”)
/ɡw/ before e and i
corresponds to gu in other positions
llengua (“language”) – llengües (“languages”)
/k/ before e and i
corresponds to c in other positions
vaca (“cow”) – vaques (“cows”)
/kw/ before e and i
corresponds to qu in other positions
obliqua (“oblique- feminine”) – obliqües (“oblique- feminine plural”)
[ ʃ~tʃ ] initially and in onsets after a consonant
[ ʃ ] after i
otherwise, [ ɡz ] before stress, [ kansas ] after
xarxa [ ˈʃarʃə ] (“net”)
guix [ ˈɡiʃ ] (“chalk”)
exacte [ əɡˈzaktə ] (“exact”), fax [ ˈfaks ] (“fax”)
grammar [edit ]
The grammar of Catalan is similar to other Romance languages. Features include :
Gender and number prosody [edit ]
gat (“cat”) Gender and number inflection of the son ( “ cat ” )
Regular noun with definite article: el gat (“the cat”)
Adjective with 4 forms:
Adjective with 3 forms:
Adjective with 2 forms:
In gender inflection, the most luminary feature is ( compared to Portuguese, spanish or italian ), the personnel casualty of the typical masculine suffix -o. thus, the alternance of -o / -a, has been replaced by ø / -a. There are lone a few exceptions, like minso / minsa ( “ barely ” ). many not completely predictable morphologic alternations may occur, such as :
- Affrication: boig/boja (“insane”) vs. lleig/lletja (“ugly”)
- Loss of n: pla/plana (“flat”) vs. segon/segona (“second”)
- Final obstruent devoicing: sentit/sentida (“felt”) vs. dit/dita (“said”)
catalan has few suppletive couplets, like italian and spanish, and unlike French. Thus, Catalan has noi / noia ( “ male child ” / ” girl ” ) and gall / gallina ( “ stopcock ” / ” hen ” ), whereas french has garçon / fille and coq / poule. There is a tendency to abandon traditionally gender-invariable adjectives in prefer of mark ones, something prevailing in Occitan and French. Thus, one can find bullent / bullenta ( “ boiling ” ) in line with traditional bullent / bullent. As in the other western Romance languages, the main plural formula is the suffix -s, which may create morphologic alternations alike to the ones found in gender modulation, albeit more rarely. The most crucial one is the accession of -o- before certain consonant groups, a phonetic phenomenon that does not affect feminine forms : el pols / els polsos ( “ the pulse ” / ” the pulses ” ) v. la pols / les pols ( “ the dust ” / ” the dusts ” ) .
Determiners [edit ]
plaça de la vila (literally “square of the town”), since the noun vila (“town”) is feminine singular, the definite article carries the corresponding form, la (“the”). sign in the town straight of Begur, Catalonia, Spain. In ( literally “ square of the town ” ), since the noun ( “ town ” ) is womanly singular, the definite article carries the equate form, ( “ the ” ) .
Definite article in Standard Catalan
(elided forms in brackets)
Contractions of the definite article
al (a l’)
del (de l’)
pel (per l’)
The inflection of determinatives is complex, specially because of the high number of elisions, but is similar to the neighbor languages. Catalan has more contractions of preposition + article than spanish, like dels ( “ of + the [ plural ] ” ), but not angstrom many as italian ( which has sul, col, nel, etc. ). Central Catalan has abandoned about wholly unstressed possessives ( mon, etc. ) in favor of constructions of article + stressed forms ( el meu, etc. ), a feature of speech shared with italian .
personal pronouns [edit ]
Catalan stressed pronouns
The morphology of Catalan personal pronoun is complex, particularly in unstressed forms, which are numerous ( 13 distinct forms, compared to 11 in spanish or 9 in italian ). Features include the gender-neutral ho and the capital degree of exemption when combining different unstressed pronouns ( 65 combinations ). Catalan pronouns parade T–V distinction, like all other Romance languages ( and most european languages, but not Modern English ). This feature implies the habit of a different set up of second gear person pronouns for formality. This tractability allows Catalan to use extraposition extensively, much more than French or spanish. therefore, Catalan can have m’hi recomanaren ( “ they recommended me to him ” ), whereas in french one must say ils m’ont recommandé à lui, and spanish me recomendaron a él. This allows the placement of about any nominal terminus as a prison term subject, without having to use sol much the passive voice ( as in French or English ), or identifying the direct object with a preposition ( as in spanish ) .
Verbs [edit ]
Simple forms of a regular verb of the first conjugation: portar (“to bring”)
portat (portat, portada, portats, portades)
ell / ella
ells / elles
ell / ella
ells / elles
ell / ella
ells / elles
Like all the Romance languages, Catalan verbal inflection is more complex than the nominal. suffixation is omnipresent, whereas morphologic alternations play a secondary character. Vowel alternances are active, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as infixation and suppletion. however, these are not adenine productive as in spanish, and are largely restricted to irregular verbs. The Catalan verbal system is basically common to all westerly Romance, except that most dialects have replaced the synthetic indicative mood perfect with a circumlocutious shape of anar ( “ to go ” ) + infinitive. Catalan verbs are traditionally divided into three conjugations, with vowel themes -a-, -e-, -i-, the last two being split into two subtypes. however, this division is by and large theoretical. lone the first union is nowadays productive ( with about 3500 coarse verb ), whereas the third base ( the subtype of servir, with about 700 common verb ) is semiproductive. The verb of the second conjugation are fewer than 100, and it is not possible to create modern ones, except by compounding .
syntax [edit ]
The grammar of Catalan follows the general form of western Romance languages. The basal word order is subject–verb–object. [ 120 ] however, word club is very flexible. normally, verb-subject constructions are used to achieve a semantic effect. The sentence “ The train has arrived ” could be translated as Ha arribat el tren or El tren ha arribat. Both sentences mean “ the train has arrived ”, but the former puts a focus on the train, while the latter puts a focus on the arrival. This subtle distinction is described as “ what you might say while waiting in the station ” versus “ what you might say on the discipline. ”
Catalan names [edit ]
In Spain, every person officially has two surnames, one of which is the church father ‘s first surname and the other is the mother ‘s first surname. The law contemplates the hypothesis of joining both surnames with the Catalan conjunction i ( “ and ” ). [ 123 ]
Sample text [edit ]
Selected text from Manuel de Pedrolo ‘s 1970 fresh Un amor fora ciutat ( “ A love affair outside the city ” ) .
Tenia prop de divuit anys quan vaig conèixer
I was having close to eighteen years, when I go [ past auxiliary ] know (=I met)
I was about eighteen years old when I met
en Raül, a l’estació de Manresa.
the Raül, at the station of (=in) Manresa.
Raül, at Manresa railway station.
El meu pare havia mort, inesperadament i encara jove,
The my father had died, unexpectedly and still young,
My father had died, unexpectedly and still young,
un parell d’anys abans, i d’aquells temps
a couple of years before, and of those times
a couple of years before; and from that time
conservo un record de punyent solitud.
I keep a memory of acute loneliness
I still harbor memories of great loneliness.
Les meves relacions amb la mare
The my relations with the mother
My relationship with my mother
no havien pas millorat, tot el contrari,
not had at all improved, all the contrary,
had not improved; quite the contrary,
potser fins i tot empitjoraven
perhaps even they were worsening
and arguably it was getting even worse
a mesura que em feia gran.
at step that (=in proportion as) myself I was making big (=I was growing up).
as I grew up.
No existia, no existí mai entre nosaltres,
Not it was existing, not it existed never between us,
There did not exist, at no point had there ever existed between us
una comunitat d’interessos, d’afeccions.
a community of interests, of affections.
shared interests or affection.
Cal creure que cercava… una persona
It is necessary to believe that I was seeking… a person
I guess I was seeking… a person
en qui centrar la meva vida afectiva.
in whom to center the my life affective.
in whom I could center my emotional life.
See besides [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
- The Valencian Normative Dictionary of the Valencian Academy of the Language states that Valencian is a “ Romance speech spoken in the Valencian Community, ampere well as in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, the french department of the Pyrénées-Orientales, the Principality of Andorra, the easterly flank of Aragon and the sardinian town of Alghero ( unique in Italy ), where it receives the name of ‘Catalan ‘. ”
- The Catalan Language Dictionary of the Institut d’Estudis Catalans states in the sixth definition of “ Valencian ” that, in the Valencian Community, it is equivalent to Catalan language .
References [edit ]
Works cited [edit ]
About the Catalan language
Bilingual and multilingual dictionaries
- Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana Multilingüe (Catalan ↔ English, French, German and Spanish), from Enciclopèdia Catalana
- DACCO – open source, collaborative dictionary (Catalan–English)
Automated translation systems
- Traductor automated, online translations of text and web pages (Catalan ↔ English, French and Spanish), from gencat.cat by the Government of Catalonia
Catalan-language online encyclopedia