Reading: A Healthy Person
Health is a global phenomenon of interest to all human beings. The World Health Organization ( WHO ) is the coordinating authority for health within the United Nations ’ arrangement and creditworthy for managing questions pertaining to health in all continents. According to Kleinman and Benson ( 2006 ), the cultural perspective takes account of all aspects of human experience including illness, disease, and health in the context of patients, practitioners, and health wish service delivery. It is stated in the Ottawa Charter ( World Health Organization [ WHO ], 1986 ) that health is a resource for everyday life. Hughner and Kleine ( 2004 ) identified 18 themes about put health worldviews, which were classified into four categories : definitions of health, explanation of health, external and/or uncontrollable factors impinging on health, and the home health occupies in people ’ second biography. The literature review comprised european and U.S. articles from 1973 to 2003, but no studies from Asia. In a scandinavian context the put position on health is characterized by three qualities : ( a ) integrity, which means that health is a holistic phenomenon related to all aspects of life and company ; ( bacillus ) realism, indicating that health is a relative phenomenon experienced and evaluated according to what people find fair to expect, given their long time, aesculapian condition, and social position ; and ( c ) individualism, because health is a personal phenomenon, every human being is unique, frankincense, health and strategies for health must be individualized ( Fugelli & Ingstad, 2001 ). Nursing theories address the agreement of health in specialist and general terms. The responses from participants in Indonesia were translated from Bahasa to Norwegian. The scandinavian answers were analyzed in their original language. The students ’ responses were chiefly shortstop statements, in some cases with examples. The responses were interpreted as digest meaning units. All condensed meaning units were ultimately translated into English. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis to search for manifest and latent meanings in the text ( Graneheim & Lundman, 2004 ). The primary coil aim of content analysis is to describe the phenomenon in a conceptual form. The analysis explored the data to identify patterns in the way breastfeed students interpreted the concept of health in their cultural and national context. An case of the analysis process from condensed meaning units to codes, categories, and themes is presented in. After preliminary data analysis by scandinavian researchers, a workshop was arranged in Banda Aceh, Indonesia ( January 2014 ), for indonesian and scandinavian researchers and nursing teachers that comprised peer debrief of the preliminary findings to enhance credibility. Indonesia and Scandinavia are different societies concerning religion and to a certain extent besides regarding the preponderance and incidence of diseases. The debriefing emphasized the indonesian cultural characteristics compared with those of Scandinavia. Discussing these factors in the workshop, the authors achieved a deeper understanding of the nursing students ’ perspectives on being a healthy person, which validated the results of the study. Data were collected between March and May 2012 during ordinary lessons in the nurse education programs. In Indonesia and Sweden, the data were collected in one session, whereas in Norway data were gathered in two sessions because of the remainder in the scheduling of the two groups of students in the same semester. The participants were presented with the open-ended motion, “ What are the characteristics of a person who you think is goodly ? ” in connection with a questionnaire survey focusing on health status, family life, common sense of coherence, critical think, and inquiry use. The results of the questionnaire view will be presented elsewhere. translation of the responses to the open-ended question took invest in Scandinavia by translation from norwegian to Swedish and from norwegian to Bahasa and back again by professional translators following the Eurostat procedure ( european Communities, 2005 ). The participants were recruited from first year breastfeed students in the bachelor ’ s program in university colleges and universities in Scandinavia, and the Diploma III and bachelor ’ s programs in Indonesia. Students in the age group started their educational program in 2011, and in the countries under analyze, students are admitted to the programs once a year or twice a class. Three scholar cohorts were recruited in Indonesia. Demographics of the participants and the numeral of eligible and answer students are presented in. Of a total of 438 students, 401 students ( 91 % ) responded to the open-ended interview regarding what characterizes a goodly person, 232 students ( 123 students in the diploma broadcast and 109 in the knight bachelor ’ s degree programs ) in Indonesia, 50 students in Sweden, and 119 students in Norway. approval of informed consent, anonymity, and safe-keeping of data were obtained from the norwegian Social Science Data Services ( NSD ), which accepted the research protocol on March 22, 2012 ( No. 29212 ). In Sweden, approval of the project was obtained from the Regional Ethical Review Board in Uppsala on January 19, 2011 ( Dnr 2010/462 ), whereas in Indonesia the visualize followed national guidelines for ethical principles in medical inquiry involving human subjects based on the Declaration of Helsinki ( World Medical Association, 2014 ). alternatively of a written inform consent, the students gave their consent indirectly by answering the questionnaire after having read the information about the inquiry project. The participants in Indonesia, Sweden, and Norway characterized how a person presents herself or himself. The indonesian participants described self-presentation in terms such as “ clean appearance, being clean and looking well, ” and being “ always glad and happy. ” The indonesian participants besides mentioned “ being a person who spreads happiness ” and “ having a positive attitude regarding one ’ s own situation. ” only the indonesian students intelligibly referred to standards of hygiene, both in personal and environmental terms : “ to maintain personal hygiene, ” and maintaining “ a solid immune system ” and “ hygiene in the environment. ” The swedish participants described attitudes of self-government in statements such as “ to think in one ’ s own way and esteem oneself, and accept the fact that others think differently, ” and “ that one is in operate and can live liveliness to the fullest. ” An interpretation is that the statements from the scandinavian students reflect autonomy and self-efficacy. The cope strategies mentioned by the indonesian students were linked to searching for solutions in the context of illness and disease : having “ no pain when do activities ” and “ being able to solve one ’ s own problems. ” In addition, the indonesian participants chiefly characterized virtual activities involving skills as being proactive : “ performing all activities in a normal manner ” and “ performing useful activities and being productive. ” The scandinavian participants mentioned the same aspects in other words : “ carrying out activities without trouble ” and “ to maintain the activities of everyday life. ” An interpretation is that the mean of the coping strategies described by the participants is about identical in both continents, although there are some insidious differences regarding being proactive. All participants mentioned that coping with challenges in biography by means of gaining control, searching for solutions, and performing virtual activities was authoritative for health. There are some nuances between scandinavian and indonesian students ’ description of gaining control, where the former stated “ to gain dominance of one ’ mho body ” and “ to feel in restraint by living in full, ” whereas the latter expressed “ to have physical and psychological control in sexual intercourse to other people ” and “ to control one ’ s own emotions. ” The scandinavian participants described everyday life and wellbeing in the context of control : “ to have a sense of satisfaction with liveliness ” and “ to cope with challenges in everyday life. ” In addition, the swedish students highlighted “ audacious to fail ” as a cope strategy. Our sympathize is that the scandinavian participants focused on personal and internal control as a collar strategy, whereas the indonesian participants emphasized social and external command. lone indonesian students described being obedient to God : “ a person who believes in God and constantly follows God ’ s law ” and being “ grateful to God. ” none of the participants from Scandinavia expressed anything about spiritualty and religion in connection with health. There were alike descriptions of casual habits from both Indonesian and scandinavian students, such as “ eating enough, maintaining good food habits and eating healthy food, ” and “ being physically active and exercising. ” only the swedish participants mentioned the negative aspects of smoking and drugs : “ no fume and no intoxicating substances. ” In an overall perspective regarding the rules of life, the adopt statement underlines the health aspects of rules of biography : “ to be uncoerced to maintain one ’ s own health condition, ” which can be interpreted as general recommendations for health promotion. The participants referred to different rules and norms of life : being full to others, being kind to one ’ second kin, friends and colleagues, performing everyday tasks, and being obedient to God. Participants from all nurse faculties in Indonesia described a standard of supporting other people both in casual life sentence and in professional relationships in terms as “ being able to interact and contribute to other people and their needs ” and “ being bonny to others. ” There were no significant differences between the indonesian students ’ statements about being good to others and those from Scandinavia : “ to be gentle and decent to others ” and “ meet others with respect and understanding. ” such norms can be interpreted as general interpersonal and human-centered rules.
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Statements from the indonesian students underlined a positive attitude to liveliness, such as “ thinking positively ” and “ being creative. ” The scandinavian students expressed their cocksure attitude to life by the keep up statements : “ satisfied with the position and being capable of doing whatever one wants, ” “ being satisfied with the circumstances of life, ” and “ having joy of life and being able to find joy in minor things. ” The swedish participants stated that feelings of gladden and happiness are important for being healthy : “ a felicitous person who attempts to gild the casual life of others. ” wellbeing and inner harmony act emotions and immanent comprehension of being whole and incorporate, described as not feeling oppressed, and being self-assured. The indonesian participants used terms such as “ not being oppressed, ” whereas the swedish participants described attitudes of self-determination in statements such as “ to think in one ’ s own direction and respecting oneself, and accepting the fact that others think differently, ” and “ that one is in control and can live liveliness to the fullest. ” This might be interpreted as being autonomous, which is an inside measure and strength, and might give the person a feeling of wellbeing and harmony. none of the norwegian participants mentioned anything about feeling persecute. assurance was expressed, particularly by the scandinavian participants : “ being satisfied with oneself and life ” and “ having faith in oneself. ” The indonesian participants used terms that might refer to emotions : “ to be confident under all conditions ” and “ to control one ’ second emotions. ” however, these statements are equivocal as they could be interpreted as suppressing emotions. The participants stated that the condition of the body was crucial for experiencing health, using terms, such as, presenting a smiling face, the absence of disease, being physically solid, and having an about arrant body. In both continents, the absence of disease was characterized by statements such as “ rarely being ill ” and “ having no injury or symptoms of disease ” to underline their opinion. A strong and perfective torso was mentioned as characteristic of a healthy person, described as having little or no decrease in normal officiate and not experiencing fatigue. scandinavian students ’ sympathy of a perfect consistency was to “ appear wholesome ” and that “ weight should be what is considered normal, ” whereas the indonesian students ’ understand was “ to present an ideal consistency, ” and having “ a arrant body with no deficits. ” similar statements were used in all three settings, such as “ to be in good condition ” and “ hard, not feeling tired and constantly appearing well. ” Having “ a good body image ” was described as a characteristic of health in both regions. The indonesian nurse students emphasized the importance of smiling and presenting a cheerful face, expressed in terms such as “ always being happy when encountering early people, ” having a “ clean font, ” and “ smiling a lot. ” When a scandinavian scholar underlined that being healthy is “ meeting each day with a smile, ” we interpreted this as an affirmative and positive position of meeting day by day challenges. The analysis resulted in one composition and five categories that characterize a healthy person ( determine ). The composition summarizes the integral character of a healthy person as “ external and inside libra, ” which are strongly intertwined. In any single person, these factors can not be experienced as divided, because they represent the wholeness of self-image and appearance. external libra refers to following the significant rules of life associated with the respective cultural norms, having a solid body that can cope with practical challenges, participating in activities, and self-presentation. Inner balance is related to feelings of wellbeing and header, inside harmony, positive self-esteem, and being in command. The categories are, having a potent and positive body picture, feeling well and having inner harmony, following the rules of life sentence, coping with challenges, and acting in unison with the environment. indonesian students characterized a healthy person by mention to collective values and self-presentation, whereas the scandinavian students referred to identity and inner harmony .
The bearing of the deliver study was to explore how nurse students in Indonesia and Scandinavia characterize a healthy person, which led to the theme “ external and inside balance. ” The findings chiefly revealed similarities preferably than differences among the nursing students. When describing what it means to be a healthy person, the indonesian students appear to be influenced by collective values, the self-presentation and external libra, whereas the scandinavian students seem to recognize a healthy person by reference point to individuality and inner balance wheel. The fact that the agreement of being healthy comprises some similarities in both settings is reasonably surprise, given observed differences in culture, standards of living, and the preponderance of disease. An explanation might be that the WHO ’ s definition of health has influenced the comprehension of health and the harbor education all over the world. According to Strength and Cagle ( 1999 ) and Gillund, Rystedt, Wilde-Larsson, and Kvigne ( 2012 ), nursing education in Indonesia is influenced by the U.S. nurse course of study. The participants in this study were freshman nurse program students, which may have led to a theoretical comprehension of a healthy person. The findings in the present analyze suggest that the participants ’ interpretation of having a strong and an attractive body is in telephone line with young people ’ south attitude to body gratification and weight, regardless of ethnicity ( Mikolajczyk, Iannotti, Farhat, & Thomas, 2012 ). however, studies examining the correlation of torso satisfaction with fitness and subjective wellbeing reveal that older adults may measure bodily function more than bodily appearance ( Reboussin et al., 2000 ). In the present study, there was preferably a leaning for the participants—young adults—to mention an attractive body and satisfactory bodily routine at the like time. Their description of having a potent body and the absence of disease and illness is in line with Hughner and Kleine ’ sulfur ( 2004 ) results about lay health worldviews and represents an reason of health that emphasize illness. The participants besides pointed out that the appearance of the torso is of importance. In the western world, the ideal torso is slender, well-shaped, and trained, demonstrating wholesomeness and control ( Laliberte Rudman, 2015 ). It is reasonable to assume that this ideal besides influences young people in Indonesia. The indonesian students highlighted the appearance of the face, for case, being fairly and beamish, which may be a leave of the Islamic dress requirements for women, where the body is covered except for the face and hands ( Rinaldo, 2010 ). The face, consequently, has greater bulge. body and self-presentation are fundamental in all interpersonal communication. For all individuals, the mental, physical, and social aspects of health are close weave, constituting a vital parts of one ’ sulfur life. Mental health is crucial for the overall wellbeing of individuals and societies ( WHO, 2001 ). In the present study, the category “ feeling good and having inner harmony ” can be understand as representing aspects of mental health. The WHO ’ s definition of health besides includes wellbeing. An probe of physical and mental health among honest-to-god people in Scandinavia ( Moe, Hellzen, Ekker, & Enmarker, 2013 ) indicates that although both women and men among the oldest erstwhile are vulnerable in terms of health, they have an inside harmony that contributes to strengthening independence, integrity, and use of life. As the participants in the present study are young adults, they can not be directly compared with erstwhile adults ( Moe et al., 2013 ). however, mental health problems are increasing among unseasoned people in Scandinavia ( The National Board of Health and Welfare, 2009 ) as is forlornness, peculiarly among older people ( Cacioppo, Hughes, Waite, Hawkley, & Thisted, 2006 ). Nevertheless, an investigation of the effects of daily spiritual and religious activities among young adults ( Rounding, Hart, Hibbard, & Carroll, 2011 ) identified less depressive symptoms and more feelings of deep peace, harmony, and gratitude. The indonesian participants underlined their obedience to God. spiritual contemplation and religious practice may enhance inner harmony. An authoritative topic regarding what it means to be a healthy person concerns “ following the rules of life ” : deal with everyday tasks and being kind to others. These rules of life might contribute to general social corroborate and to improved mental health, and can be interpreted as general humanist and interpersonal precepts for a healthy life in both Indonesia and Scandinavia. For the indonesian students, these rules are intertwined with Islamic norms, as the majority of the population identify themselves as Muslim ( Burhani, 2014 ). In Scandinavia, the rules of life are intertwined with profane beliefs and there is a firm stress on a healthy life style, such as eating goodly food, drill, and not smoking ( WHO, 1986 ). In the confront report, kindness to others and having friends was found among the experiences of wellbeing and health. Kindness to others, such as close friends and kin, is a fundamental value that might strengthen one ’ s self-esteem, which is of importance for health and wellbeing. previous studies have focused on how people cope with challenges following disease, physical disorders, and genial health problems ( Bajaj et al., 2013 ; Chawla et al., 2013 ; Wang et al., 2014 ). The category “ coping with challenges ” deals with being proactive, gaining command, and searching for solutions, which together express the breastfeed students ’ positive attitudes and efforts to live as healthy a life as possible. The participants, particularly those from Indonesia, were chiefly young adults and, consequently, they might have experienced few challenges in their life couple, leading to the rendition that both Indonesian and scandinavian nurse students lack experiences of crisis, illness, and disease. On the contrary, such experiences might be abundant for the indonesian students, who have experienced the tsunami disaster of 2004 and political conflicts in the Aceh region. From a critical position, the participants ’ life experiences should not devalue their positive self-image of viewing themselves as a resource, both in managing their own health and promoting health activities for their chap human beings, friends, and families. In contrast to the WHO definition of health, which focuses on complete wellbeing and the absence of disease in universal terms, the participants underlined coping with challenges in everyday liveliness, which is in line with the opinion of health as a holistic, relative, and personal phenomenon ( Fugelli & Ingstad, 2001 ). Participants in both Indonesia and Scandinavia were aware of the importance of their self-presentation to others in all human relationships. The indonesian participants specially highlighted the importance of looking well and being happy as an indicator of health and life gratification. This is in accord with an probe among turkish breastfeed school students ( Yildirim, Kilic, & Akyol, 2013 ) that revealed a positive relationship between students ’ gratification with life and quality of life. The scandinavian participants in the introduce study did not describe specific behavioral conditions to characterize their attitude to self-presentation. A comparative survey of modesty in self-presentation between japanese and U.S. participants ( Yamagishi et al., 2012 ) indicates a cultural dispute between westerly and asian people, where most of the Americans exhibited a self-enhancement leaning, which was less pronounce among the Japanese.
Challenges regarding domestic and environmental hygiene are much related to the poverty of the population in a area and the family sanitation ( Nath, 2003 ). Despite sanitation and environmental hygiene differences between Indonesia and Scandinavia because of different standards of life, there appeared to be no substantial eminence between the nurse students ’ focus on this return, although the indonesian participants expressed their sympathy of hygiene as an important factor for preventing infections and disease more directly. Bryer, Cherkis, and Raman ( 2013 ) defined traditional nursing students as women aged 24 years or younger, who have no dependant children, whereas non-traditional students are men aged 25 years or older with subject children. This definition might be provocative in some european countries and similarly in Asia. approximately half the scandinavian participants but none of the indonesian students were married or cohabitating. In accession, the intend age of the scandinavian participants was slightly higher than that of their indonesian counterparts. There were no differences between traditional and non-traditional nursing students in the salute study ( cystic fibrosis. Bryer et al., 2013 ) in the feel of employment, having children, or being single parents. Among non-traditional harbor students, there seems to be a difference in health behaviors and perceived barriers to health forwarding ( Bryer et al., 2013 ). In production line with the statements in the Ottawa Charter, health forwarding needs to be strengthened all over the universe to prevent hazardous health behaviors. This is particularly on-key in Indonesia, where nurses are an all-important share of the health care system because they represent the largest group of health worry workers in the country and therefore have an crucial deputation to fulfill this purpose. consequently, it will be valuable to develop the education of health promotion for nurse students. approximately half the participants from Indonesia were taking separate in a Diploma III plan for nursing students, whereas the stay were in an average knight bachelor ’ s degree program ( indonesian Educational and Cultural Minister, 1999 ). All the scandinavian participants attended a bachelor ’ mho program in nursing ( Norge, Kunnskapsdep, 2008 ). The differences between a Diploma III program and a bachelor ’ south plan are primarily linked to the depth and volume of central topics. Whether or not the differences in the nursing education programs influenced the participants ’ responses is ill-defined. however, the participants had in park the fact that they were all in the first base class of their nurse education broadcast .